THE EARTH

The word ‘earth’ came from Middle English ‘erthe’, from Old English ‘eorpe’, from Germanic
language ‘erpo’. Earth, where we live. We live on Earth. The shape of earth is not fully round,
its shape is like an orange. Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest. Its orbit
= 149,600,000 km(1.00 AU(Astronomical Unit)) from sun. Its diameter =12,756.3 km and
mass = 5.972e24 kg. In Roman Mythology, The goddess of Earth was Tellus, the fertile soil,
Greek- Gaia, terramater – the Mother Earth. Earth’s chemical composition (by mass) is 34.6%
Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickel, 1.9% Sulfar, 0.05%
Titanium. The Earth moves round the sun. It takes 365-1/4 days to complete its orbit round
the sun. The Earth’s year is,therefore, 365 days long, but the 1/4 days are added up and every
fourth year has one extra day on the 29th of February. This fourth year is called Leap Year(365
days). It rotates on its axis right round in 24 hours. Earth’s orbit around the sun is the 3rd fastest
orbit of all the Solar system planets. 71% of the Earth surface is covered with water. The Earth’s atmosphere is 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, CO2, and water. The Earth is
fragile. Its surface is split into plates (tectonic plates) which float on a rocky mantle – the layer
between the surface of the earth, its crust, and its hot liquid core. The inside of the Earth is act-
-ive, and earthquakes and volcanoes and mountain building takes place along the boundaries of
the tectonic plates. The Earth is the 5th largest planet and the 4th smallest planet in the solar
system. Earth is one of the four planets in the solar system that is a rocky planet. These rocky
planets are called ‘Terrestrial Planets’. Earth tilts on an axis of 23.5 degrees. It has a powerful
magnetic field that protects the planet from harmful elements from space. Earth has one
satellite which is called Moon. It takes 27 days to orbit around the earth. Earth does not have
any rings. The highest recorded temperature on Earth 160 degree and the lowest recorded
temperature on Earth is -190 degree.


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